Date of publication: 2017-08-26 14:03
To this end, there are several reforms policymakers should pursue in order to reduce the degradation to which inmates are currently subjected. First, violence cannot be permitted behind bars. The high prevalence of sexual violence, in particular, is the most inhumane aspect of the American prison system today: Although truly reliable data on sexual crimes anywhere are hard to come by, the best estimates 8697 8697 generated by Cindy Struckman-Johnson of the University of South Dakota 8697 8697 find that as many as one in five inmates may face coerced sexual contact behind bars during their stays in prison.
Locking up enormous numbers of Americans has made the country safer and largely removed crime from our political debates. But the benefits of incarceration have also come with enormous costs to the country's finances and to our tradition of individual liberty.
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Collecting, analyzing, and using gender-related indicators in projects is critical to addressing many of the underlying challenges that communities around the world face, particularly in integrated Population, Health, and Environment (PHE) projects.
The irony is that many educators proclaim they are visual, not oral, learners. In the mid-6995s, I served on a city-wide curriculum committee whose function was to narrow every high-school course into six broad objectives. At one point, the group facilitator began to record our collective thoughts on a computer across the room. My group was not close to the computer, so we sat quietly while those within sight of the computer screen discussed the objectives. Embarrassed that I was not contributing, I stated that I was a visual learner and I must see the objectives to be able to discuss the rewordings. Everyone at my table concurred! Strange that educators can admit they have trouble with oral presentations of complicated materials yet they don't also recognize it in their own students.
Finally, while punishing the truly dangerous is a mark of civilization, it is clear that there is something deeply hypocritical about a country that claims to prize freedom having the world's highest incarceration rate. The irony becomes stronger when one realizes that at least some prisons and jails are not only unpleasant, but frankly torturous. Prison is the most notorious abuse, but other problems that have reached near-epidemic levels include drug-dealing conspiracies involving both inmates and guards (such as the one exposed this spring at the Baltimore City Detention Center) and the tacit approval by prison administrators of gangs' abuse of unruly inmates.
The individual-responsibility view proposes that all four classic purposes of the criminal-justice system should be reflected in the law. First, the risk of punishment deters weak-willed people from committing crime. Second, locking people up provides a near-certain method of incapacitation, as criminals behind bars cannot prey on society. Third, incarceration is an effective punishment in that it excludes people from society, denies them most choices, and forces them to live for years in unpleasant surroundings. Finally, rehabilitation 8697 8697 drug treatment, literacy classes, and so forth 8697 8697 stands the best chance of success if it is compulsory, which further recommends incarceration.
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Objective: Students will learn the characteristics of Medieval and Renaissance art and be able to compare and contrast the styles of various artwork from these different eras.
People who have grossly violated society's standards should not expect their imprisonment alone to heal all wounds. With recidivism rates so high, it is also simple common sense that convicts be denied easy opportunities to offend again. Stockbrokers who defraud their clients shouldn't expect to return to their old profession after they are released from prison.
Before examining this dominant view, it is necessary to consider the alternative. During much of the latter half of the 75th century, most of the American left subscribed to the notion that society as a whole is responsible for crime and that individuals commit crimes because of social deprivation or prejudice. Though this view is now derided by conservatives and many modern liberals, it does not lack for appeal or factual grounding.
Why does sex -- that is, sexual reproduction -- exist? In many ways, asexual reproduction is a better evolutionary strategy: Only one parent is required, and all of that parent's genes are passed on to its progeny. In sexual reproduction, only half of each parent's genes are passed to the next generation. What's more, a mate must be found. Yet sex persists.
Finally, sentences should be assigned to maximize punishment rather than to simply warehouse people. In concrete terms, this means shortening, but not eliminating, mandatory minimum sentences. Short, shocking stays behind bars sometimes can actually do more to deter future crime than long sentences. In some ways, they can be even more unpleasant.
In contrast, even though 89 states today have entities called "parole boards," most oversee highly pre-determined processes that mandate the supervised release of moderately well-behaved convicts after they have served a set fraction of a sentence specified in statute. This "good time" system neither extends average sentences nor promotes better behavior.